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Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(1):53-9. doi: 10.1159/000345087. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Low glomerular filtration rate increases hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke.

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Department of Neurology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can increase the risk of bleeding tendency and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the relationship between the levels of GFR and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after acute ischemic stroke is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether GFR level is associated with HT in acute ischemic stroke.


We reviewed 770 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke within 7 days from September 2007 to February 2012 in a prospective stroke registry database. We calculated the patient's GFR using the Cockcroft-Gault equation, and divided them into 3 groups: ≥60, 30-59 and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). HTs were identified by follow-up computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, and were defined as (1) any degree of high density within the area of low attenuation of vascular territory on noncontrast brain CT, or (2) low-signal intensity area in gradient echo within high-signal intensity meaning acute infarct on diffusion-weighted imaging. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of GFR for HT. Stratification analyses were done according to the presence of HT high risk factors: atrial fibrillation (AF), thrombolysis and large size infarction. Additional logistic regression model for symptomatic HTs was established with the same variables.


HTs were noted in 131 patients (17.0%) and symptomatic HTs in 63 patients (8.2%). In univariate analysis, HTs were more frequent in patients with AF (51.9 vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001) and large-size infarction (42.0 vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). The risk of HT was associated with decreased GFR among 3 subgroups classified according to the value of estimated GFR: 49/394 (12.4%) in the GFR ≥60 group, 66/312 (21.2%) in the 30≤ GFR <59 group and 16/64 (25.0%) in the GFR <30 group (p = 0.002). We found a significant association between the GFR <30 group and HTs in acute ischemic stroke (OR 2.90; 95% CI 1.26-6.68, p = 0.012) after adjusting for other risk factors. Moreover, the incidence of HTs was higher in the subgroups without thrombolysis (OR 3.49; 95% CI 1.44-8.46) and without AF (OR 3.44; 95% CI 1.10-10.76). Decreased GFR also had a tendency of increasing symptomatic HTs (OR 2.39; 95% CI 0.72-7.94, p = 0.154).


Low levels of GFR are associated with a high risk of HT after acute ischemic stroke. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether HT in the patients with renal insufficiency are related to a worse outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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