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J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12;288(15):10406-17. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.443796. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Tetramerization of SAMHD1 is required for biological activity and inhibition of HIV infection.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Abstract

SAMHD1 is a dGTP-activated dNTPase that has been implicated as a modulator of the innate immune response. In monocytes and their differentiated derivatives, as well as in quiescent cells, SAMHD1 strongly inhibits HIV-1 infection and, to a lesser extent, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) because of their virion-associated virulence factor Vpx, which directs SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation. Here, we used a combination of biochemical and virologic approaches to gain insights into the functional organization of human SAMHD1. We found that the catalytically active recombinant dNTPase is a dGTP-induced tetramer. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed SAMHD1 tetramers in human monocytic cells, in which it strongly restricts HIV-1 infection. The propensity of SAMHD1 to maintain the tetrameric state in vitro is regulated by its C terminus, located outside of the catalytic domain. Accordingly, we show that the C terminus is required for the full ability of SAMHD1 to deplete dNTP pools and to inhibit HIV-1 infection in U937 monocytes. Interestingly, the human SAMHD1 C terminus contains a docking site for HIV-2/SIVmac Vpx and is known to have evolved under positive selection. This evidence indicates that Vpx targets a functionally important element in SAMHD1. Together, our findings imply that SAMHD1 tetramers are the biologically active form of this dNTPase and provide new insights into the functional organization of SAMHD1.

PMID:
23426366
PMCID:
PMC3624423
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M112.443796
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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