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J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12;288(15):10923-35. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.414961. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Metabolome response to glucose in the β-cell line INS-1 832/13.

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1
Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA.

Abstract

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is triggered by metabolism of the sugar to increase ATP/ADP ratio that blocks the KATP channel leading to membrane depolarization and insulin exocytosis. Other metabolic pathways believed to augment insulin secretion have yet to be fully elucidated. To study metabolic changes during GSIS, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of 87 metabolites temporally following a change in glucose from 3 to 10 mM glucose and in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in the INS-1 832/13 β-cell line. U-[(13)C]Glucose was used to probe flux in specific metabolic pathways. Results include a rapid increase in ATP/ADP, anaplerotic tricarboxylic acid cycle flux, and increases in the malonyl CoA pathway, support prevailing theories of GSIS. Novel findings include that aspartate used for anaplerosis does not derive from the glucose fuel added to stimulate insulin secretion, glucose flux into glycerol-3-phosphate, and esterification of long chain CoAs resulting in rapid consumption of long chain CoAs and de novo generation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. Further, novel metabolites with potential roles in GSIS such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), GDP-mannose, and farnesyl pyrophosphate were found to be rapidly altered following glucose exposure.

PMID:
23426361
PMCID:
PMC3624472
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M112.414961
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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