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J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013 May;24(5):1239-49. doi: 10.1007/s10856-013-4889-2. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Corrosion and in vitro biocompatibility properties of cryomilled-spark plasma sintered commercially pure titanium.

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Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2575, USA.


Ti alloys, such as Ti6Al4V, are currently used in biomedical and dental implant applications. Ti alloys are used because they are stronger than commercially pure (CP) Ti due to the presence of alloying elements. However, toxicity of alloying elements during long-term use of implants is of concern. Another means of increasing the strength of materials is grain size refinement. In this study, ultrafine-grained (UFG, ~250 nm to 1 μm) CP Ti was produced by cryomilling followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cell culture experiments were performed to compare the corrosion and biocompatibility properties of coarse grained (CG) Ti and UFG Ti. It was found that UFG Ti exhibited corrosion resistance comparable to CG Ti in Ringers solution. In addition, UFG Ti exhibited a reduced inflammatory response and enhanced cell adhesion compared to CG Ti. Investigation of surface roughness provided an explanation for enhanced cell adhesion.

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