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Chin Med J (Engl). 2013 Feb;126(3):542-9.

Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.

Author information

1
Department of Anaesthesiology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310022, China. weholmes@hotmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.

DATA SOURCES:

Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982 - 2011), Pubmed (1982 - 2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982 - 2011).

STUDY SELECTION:

Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected. Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.

RESULTS:

By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain, including anticonvulsants, antidepressants, local anaesthetics, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, opioids, calcitonin, capsaicin, beta-adrenergic blockers, clonidine, muscle relaxants, and emerging drugs, we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications, outlined the limitations and future directions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain, we recommend tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, tramadol, opioids, local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

PMID:
23422122
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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