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Cell Cycle. 2013 Mar 15;12(6):889-98. doi: 10.4161/cc.23825. Epub 2013 Feb 19.

TRIM16 inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation and dynamic nuclear localization.

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Children's Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW Australia.


Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and represents 15% of all children's cancer deaths. We have previously demonstrated that tripartite motif 16 (TRIM16), a member of the RING B-box coiled-coil (RBCC)/tripartite totif (TRIM) protein family, has significant effects on neuroblastoma proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. However, the mechanism by which this putative tumor suppressor influences cell proliferation and tumorigenicity was undetermined. Here we show, for the first time, TRIM16's striking pattern of expression and dynamic localization during cell cycle progression and neuroblastoma tumor development. In a tyrosine hydroxylase MYCN (TH-MYCN) neuroblastoma mouse model, immunohistochemical staining revealed strong nuclear TRIM16 expression in differentiating ganglia cells but not in the tumor-initiating cells. Furthermore in vitro studies clearly demonstrated that during G 1 cell cycle phase, TRIM16 protein expression is upregulated and shifts to the nucleus of cells. TRIM16 also plays a role in cell cycle progression through changes in Cyclin D1 and p27 expression. Importantly, using TRIM16 deletion mutants, an uncharacterized protein domain of TRIM16 was found to be required for both TRIM16's growth inhibitory effects and its nuclear localization. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 acts as a novel regulator of both neuroblastoma G 1/S progression and cell differentiation.


EBBP; TRIM16; cancer; cell cycle; cyclin D1; localization; neuroblastoma; p27; proliferation

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