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Geriatr Nurs. 2013 May-Jun;34(3):194-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Feb 16.

The CARES(®) Observational Tool: a valid and reliable instrument to assess person-centered dementia care.

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School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, 6-153 Weaver-Densford Hall, 1331, 308 Harvard Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.


The goal of the current study was to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure whether person-centered care is delivered by direct care workers to persons with dementia. Face validity was initially established through multiple revisions of the CARES(®) Observational Tool (COT™) by members of the study team. Afterward, content validity of the COT was established by piloting the tool on 31 observations across 7 nursing homes and review by an interdisciplinary panel of nine scientific experts. The final 16-item version of the COT was then tested for inter-rater reliability by 5 reviewers across 5 standardized dementia care videos. An intra-class coefficient of all possible Kappa coefficients resulted in an ICC of .77. The brief and easy-to-use COT has potential to assess person-centered care interactions between direct care workers and persons with dementia.

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