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Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 1;74(1):15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.01.007. Epub 2013 Feb 16.

Cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of 30 studies.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. amirh899@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing cytokine concentrations between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy control subjects (HCs).

METHODS:

We searched ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, Current Contents Connect, and Biological Abstracts for relevant studies. Based on heterogeneity status, we used fixed-effect or restricted maximal likelihood model to perform meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

Thirty studies with a total of 2599 participants (1351 BD and 1248 HCs) were eligible for the analysis. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 (p = .008), IL-6 (p = .073), IL-10 (p = .013), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; p < .001), sIL-6R (p = .021), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p = .010), soluble TNF receptor-1 (sTNFR1; p < .001), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (p value in mania < .001 and euthymia = .021) were significantly elevated in patients compared with HCs. Moreover, IL-1β (p = .059), and IL-6 (p = .073) tended to show higher values in patients. Levels of IL-2 (p = .156), interferon (INF)-γ (p = .741), C-C motif ligand 2 (p = .624), and IL-8 (p = .952) did not significantly differ between patients and HCs. Subgroup analysis based on mitogen stimulation status partially or completely resolved heterogeneity for most of the cytokines. Concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, sIL-6R, and INF-γ were unrelated to medication status. Phasic difference was present for TNF-α, sTNFR1, sIL-2R, IL-6, and IL-1RA, whereas it was absent for IL-4 and IL-10.

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis provides evidence for significant elevation of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines in BD.

PMID:
23419545
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.01.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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