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PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055832. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Cellular microRNAs 498 and 320d regulate herpes simplex virus 1 induction of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication by targeting RTA.

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State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.


Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection was necessary but not sufficient for KS development without other cofactors. We have previously reported that herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was an important cofactor that reactivated KSHV from latency by inducing the expression of KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA), the lytic switch protein. Here, we further investigated the possible cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulation of RTA during HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. The differential profiles of miRNAs expression between Mock- and HSV-1-infected body cavity-based lymphoma (BCBL-1) cells were identified by miRNA microarray analysis. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses showed that two of the HSV-1-downregulated cellular miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-320d, directly targeted the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of KSHV RTA. As a result, overexpression of these two miRNAs significantly inhibited HSV-1-induced KSHV replication, whereas repression of these miRNAs with specific suppressors enhanced HSV-1-mediated KSHV replication. In addition, miR-498 or miR-320d alone, without HSV-1 infection, regulated KSHV replication in BCBL-1 cells. Finally, bioinformatics Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that targets of HSV-1-regulated miRNAs were enriched for proteins, whose roles were involved in protein binding, enzyme activity, biological regulation, and several potential signaling pathways including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were likely to participate in HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrated that host-encoded miR-498 and miR-320d regulated HSV-1 induction of KSHV lytic replication by targeting RTA, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling KSHV lytic replication.

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