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J Mycol Med. 2013 Mar;23(1):40-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Feb 15.

Scytalidium and scytalidiosis: what's new in 2012?

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Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, CHU de Brabois, 11 allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.


Fungi belonging to the genus Scytalidium are widespread around the world. Among them, two species are responsible for human superficial infections mimicking dermatophytosis: Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and Scytalidium hyalinum. Whereas these ascomycetous fungi are endemic in tropical or subtropical countries, both species have a different geographical distribution. Scytalidiosis represents approximately 40% of dermatomycoses in these areas. A few cases of invasive infections due to Scytalidium sp. have also been reported, assessing the ability of these fungi to behave as opportunists. Here we have reviewed the data on N. dimidiatum and S. hyalinum concerning their classification, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. We also have presented the example of a specific consultation dedicated to nails in Martinique, in order to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis, many of which being due to Scytalidium sp. Even if Scytalidium cases are still rare in temperate countries, imported cases may increase in the future due to immigration and travel.

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