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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013 Mar;145(3):683-90; discussion 690-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.12.051.

Surgical treatment of metachronous second primary lung cancer after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer.

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Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.



To clarify the perioperative and oncologic outcome of pulmonary resection for a metachronous second primary lung cancer (MSPLC) following resection of an initial non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).


Retrospective chart review identified 161 patients (88 men and 73 women) with a median age of 70 years (range, 34-88 years) who underwent pulmonary resection for MSPLC between January 2000 and December 2009. Operative morbidity, mortality, and relevant factors were analyzed with χ(2) test or Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard method.


The median interval between the initial and subsequent resection for MSPLC was 42.7 months (range, 7-205 months). There was no operative mortality and postoperative complication rate was 29%. In multivariate analysis, ipsilateral operation (P = .0002) and a lower predicted preoperative percent forced expiratory volume in the first second (P = .0035) were significant risk factors for postoperative complications. Five-year overall survival rates after resection of the initial and second metachronous NSCLC were 87.4% and 60.8%, respectively. Significant negative long-term prognostic factors for survival following resection of a MSPLC in multivariate analysis were tumor size >2 cm (P = .003) and number of pack years of smoking (P = .005). Metastatic nodal disease (P = .19) or a sublobar resection (P = .17) were not associated with worse survival.


Surgical treatment of a MSPLC can be undertaken with 5-year survival rate of 60%. Expected operative morbidity and mortality are comparable to primary surgery. Tumors 2 cm or smaller are associated with improved survival and freedom from recurrence. Close long-term follow-up of patients who have undergone resection of NSCLC is recommended.

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