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Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Feb 1;4(2):193-205. doi: 10.1364/BOE.4.000193. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures.

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Applied Optics and Photonics group, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK.


We present the delivery of high energy microsecond pulses through a hollow-core negative-curvature fiber at 2.94 µm. The energy densities delivered far exceed those required for biological tissue manipulation and are of the order of 2300 J/cm(2). Tissue ablation was demonstrated on hard and soft tissue in dry and aqueous conditions with no detrimental effects to the fiber or catastrophic damage to the end facets. The energy is guided in a well confined single mode allowing for a small and controllable focused spot delivered flexibly to the point of operation. Hence, a mechanically and chemically robust alternative to the existing Er:YAG delivery systems is proposed which paves the way for new routes for minimally invasive surgical laser procedures.


(060.2270) Fiber characterization; (060.2430) Fibers, single-mode; (060.5295) Photonic crystal fibers; (170.1020) Ablation of tissue; (170.3890) Medical optics instrumentation

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