Send to

Choose Destination
Iran J Radiol. 2012 Nov;9(4):167-77. doi: 10.5812/iranjradiol.8242. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Imaging and Imaging-Guided Interventions in the Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)-Review of Evidence.

Author information

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


The imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is challenging and plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of the disease. A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC. Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable. In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated. In this paper, we aimed to review the evidence regarding imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions of HCC.


Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Chemoembolization, Therapeutic; Iran; Radiology, Interventional; Risk Factors

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center