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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Mar 28;15(12):4428-35. doi: 10.1039/c3cp43205j.

Critical parameters in exfoliating graphite into graphene.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.


Dispersing graphite into few-layers graphene sheets (GS) in water is very appealing as an environmental-friendly, low-cost, low-energy method of obtaining graphene. Very high GS concentrations in water (0.7 mg mL(-1)) were obtained by optimizing the nature of dispersant and the type of ultra-sonic generator. We find that a multi-step sonication procedure involving both tip and bath sources considerably enhances the yield of exfoliated GS. Raman and transmission electron microscopy indicate few-layers graphene patches with typical size of ∼0.65 μm in one dimension and ∼0.35 μm in the other. These were further employed in combination with water-dispersed CNTs to fabricate conductive transparent electrodes for a molecularly-controlled solar-cell with an open-circuit voltage of 0.53 V.


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