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Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Jun;31(6):494-509. doi: 10.1177/0748233713475517. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Khulais, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Biology Department, Saudi Arabia
Department of Biology (Zoology), Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Physiology Department, Egypt.


The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue.


Scopolamine; acetylcholinesterase; ginseng; memantine; neurotransmitters

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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