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Hum Mol Genet. 2013 May 15;22(10):2097-104. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt059. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Absolute pitch exhibits phenotypic and genetic overlap with synesthesia.

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Robert S. Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, NorthShore-LIJ, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.


Absolute pitch (AP) and synesthesia are two uncommon cognitive traits that reflect increased neuronal connectivity and have been anecdotally reported to occur together in an individual. Here we systematically evaluate the occurrence of synesthesia in a population of 768 subjects with documented AP. Out of these 768 subjects, 151 (20.1%) reported synesthesia, most commonly with color. These self-reports of synesthesia were validated in a subset of 21 study subjects, using an established methodology. We further carried out combined linkage analysis of 53 multiplex families with AP and 36 multiplex families with synesthesia. We observed a peak NPL LOD = 4.68 on chromosome 6q, as well as evidence of linkage on chromosome 2, using a dominant model. These data establish the close phenotypic and genetic relationship between AP and synesthesia. The chromosome 6 linkage region contains 73 genes; several leading candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment were investigated by exon resequencing. However, further studies will be required to definitively establish the identity of the causative gene(s) in the region.

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