Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013 Jan;27(1):24-9. doi: 10.2500/ajra.2013.27.3838.

Detection of surfactant proteins A, B, C, and D in human nasal mucosa and their regulation in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps.

Author information

Department of Anatomy II, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.



The nasal mucosa is characterized by a multirow high prismatic ciliated epithelium representing the first barrier of the immune defense system against microbial and other environmental pathogenic influences. A number of nonspecific defense mechanisms, including the presence of lactoferrin, peroxidases, proteases, interferons, and lysozymes in nasal secretions, act to counter inflammatory processes. The surfactant proteins (SPs) known from the lungs are important components of the innate immune system. They also influence the rheology of fluids and reduce the surface tension of gas-fluid interphases. The objective of this study was to investigate the protein expression of all four SPs. A specific aim was detection and characterization of SP-C, which had previously not been confirmed in human nasal mucosa.


The expression of mRNA for SP-A, -B, -C and -D was investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on samples of both healthy nasal mucosa and nasal mucosa altered by inflammatory processes (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis). The distribution of all four proteins was determined with monoclonal antibodies using Western blot analysis as well as immunohistochemical methods.


The results show that all four SPs, including SP-C not detected before this, are nasal mucosa components. A shift was also observed in the expression behavior of the SP-A, -B, and -D in nasal mucosa with inflammatory changes.


Based on these results, SPs appear to have an important function in immunologic and rheological process of the nasal mucosa and support the prospective therapeutic use of liposomal nasal sprays.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center