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Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013 Feb 13;8:25. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-8-25.

Systematic review of central nervous system anomalies in incontinentia pigmenti.

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School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, and Dermatovenerology Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.


The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the central nervous system (CNS) types of anomalies and to consider the possibility to include CNS anomalies in Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) criteria. The analyzed literature data from 1,393 IP cases were from the period 1993-2012. CNS anomalies were diagnosed for 30.44% of the investigated IP patients. The total number of CNS types of anomalies per patient was 1.62. In the present study there was no significantly higher number of anomalies per patient in females than males. The most frequent CNS types of anomalies were seizures, motor impairment, mental retardation, and microcephaly. The most frequently registered CNS lesions found using brain imaging methods were brain infarcts or necrosis, brain atrophies, and corpus callosum lesions. IKBKG exon 4-10 deletion was present in 86.00% of genetically confirmed IP patients. The frequency of CNS anomalies, similar to the frequency of retinal anomalies in IP patients, concurrent with their severity, supports their recognition in the list of IP minor criteria.

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