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J Dairy Sci. 2013 Apr;96(4):2507-2520. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6111. Epub 2013 Feb 10.

Propionate induces the release of granules from bovine neutrophils.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Inflammation Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology and Morphophysiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, PO Box 567, Valdivia, Chile.
2
Laboratory of Inflammation Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology and Morphophysiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, PO Box 567, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address: rburgos1@uach.cl.

Abstract

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the rumen of cattle and are the primary energy source in ruminants. Propionate is one of the main SCFA and it can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process and neutrophil function via calcium (Ca(2+)) release, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular pH changes. However, currently no evidence has shown whether propionate can induce granule release from bovine neutrophils. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of propionate on granule release and to evaluate the expression of two G-protein coupled receptors-GPR41 and GPR43-that are activated by propionate. Neutrophil degranulation was assessed by quantifying the release of the neutrophil enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) as markers of azurophil, specific granules, and gelatinase granules, respectively. Isolated bovine neutrophils were treated with millimolar concentrations of propionate (0.3, 3 and 30mM), and the cell-free supernatants were recovered. The stimulation of neutrophils with 0.3mM propionate induced the release of lactoferrin and MMP-9 as revealed by ELISA and gelatin zymography, respectively. Propionate at 30mM induced the release of MPO as demonstrated using an enzymatic assay. The role of intracellular Ca(2+) influx and the signaling pathways that may regulate the propionate effect on granules release were also determined. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were performed to analyze the expression of GPR41 and GPR43 mRNA in bovine neutrophils. Both mRNA were detected, whereas the expression of GPR43 was higher than that of GPR41, and the synthetic agonists for this receptor, phenylacetamides 1 and 2, caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), lactoferrin, and MMP-9 release. These results support that propionate-induced granule release is mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) influx and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK 1/2. We also propose a potential role of GPR43 in propionate-induced granule release from bovine neutrophils that may be involved in regulatory effects of propionate in the innate immune response in cattle.

PMID:
23403200
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2012-6111
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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