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Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan;71(1):67-74. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24628. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Whole-heart coronary MRA with 100% respiratory gating efficiency: self-navigated three-dimensional retrospective image-based motion correction (TRIM).

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  • 1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA; Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.



To develop a three-dimensional retrospective image-based motion correction technique for whole-heart coronary MRA with self-navigation that eliminates both the need to setup a diaphragm navigator and gate the acquisition.


The proposed technique uses one-dimensional self-navigation to track the superior-inferior translation of the heart, with which the acquired three-dimensional radial k-space data is segmented into different respiratory bins. Respiratory motion is then estimated in image space using an affine transform model and subsequently this information is used to perform efficient motion correction in k-space. The performance of the proposed technique on healthy volunteers is compared with the conventional navigator gating approach as well as data binning using diaphragm navigator.


The proposed method is able to reduce the imaging time to 7.1±0.5 min from 13.9±2.6 min with conventional navigator gating. The scan setup time is reduced as well due to the elimination of the navigator. The proposed method yields excellent image quality comparable with either conventional navigator gating or the navigator binning approach.


We have developed a new respiratory motion correction technique for coronary MRA that enables 1 mm(3) isotropic resolution and whole-heart coverage with 7 min of scan time. Further tests on patient population are needed to determine its clinical usage.


3D affine transform; 3D radial acquisition; coronary MRA; respiratory motion correction

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