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Child Dev. 2013 Sep-Oct;84(5):1526-41. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12064. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Parent praise to 1- to 3-year-olds predicts children's motivational frameworks 5 years later.

Author information

1
University of Chicago, USA. liz.gunderson@temple.edu

Abstract

In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks--they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents' early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children's later fixed-ability frameworks, parents' praise of children's effort at 14-38 months (N = 53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7-8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments.

PMID:
23397904
PMCID:
PMC3655123
DOI:
10.1111/cdev.12064
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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