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Endocrinology. 2013 Mar;154(3):1092-104. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-2098. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

X and Y chromosome complement influence adiposity and metabolism in mice.

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Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7239, USA.


Three different models of MF1 strain mice were studied to measure the effects of gonadal secretions and sex chromosome type and number on body weight and composition, and on related metabolic variables such as glucose homeostasis, feeding, and activity. The 3 genetic models varied sex chromosome complement in different ways, as follows: 1) "four core genotypes" mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males, and XX and XY gonadal females; 2) the XY* model comprising groups similar to XO, XX, XY, and XXY; and 3) a novel model comprising 6 groups having XO, XX, and XY chromosomes with either testes or ovaries. In gonadally intact mice, gonadal males were heavier than gonadal females, but sex chromosome complement also influenced weight. The male/female difference was abolished by adult gonadectomy, after which mice with 2 sex chromosomes (XX or XY) had greater body weight and percentage of body fat than mice with 1 X chromosome. A second sex chromosome of either type, X or Y, had similar effects, indicating that the 2 sex chromosomes each possess factors that influence body weight and composition in the MF1 genetic background. Sex chromosome complement also influenced metabolic variables such as food intake and glucose tolerance. The results reveal a role for the Y chromosome in metabolism independent of testes and gonadal hormones and point to a small number of X-Y gene pairs with similar coding sequences as candidates for causing these effects.

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