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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Mar;37(3):448-70. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.01.024. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

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Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neuropsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universit├Ątsstra├če 150, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.


Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet.

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