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AIDS Care. 2013;25(6):686-90. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2013.764382. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Comparison of pregnancy characteristics and outcomes between HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected women in Brazil.

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Escola Nacional de Saude Publica/Fundação Osvaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of pregnant women whether they are HIV infected or not and their prenatal care. It is a cross-sectional study. HIV-infected women were derived from a cohort study of all HIV-infected pregnant women followed from 1995 to 2005, at the Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira - Rio de Janeiro. HIV-non-infected women were derived from a random sample of all pregnant women who gave birth at Rio de Janeiro municipality between 1999 and 2001. All relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy outcomes data were retrieved from both studies. To evaluate the prenatal care, we calculated the Kotelchuck Modified Index (KMI). The index is based on the months of initiation of prenatal care and the proportion of visits observed in each trimester, according to gestational age at birth. Comparisons were performed using Student t- and chi-square tests. Variables with p-value < 0.25 were included in an unconditional logistic regression model. There were 713 HIV-infected women and 2145 HIV-non-infected women. Variables independently associated with HIV status were: inadequate KMI (OR=4.08, 95% CI=3.17-5.24); lower educational level (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.04-1.68); does not live with a partner (OR=3.54, 95% CI=2.66-4.64); lower family income (OR=4.71, 95% CI=3.62-6.14); tobacco use (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.63-2.88); and hypertension (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.01-2.17). Prematurity was not independently associated with HIV status. Although in Brazil, the HIV care is free of charge, pregnant women are still having difficulty to reach the specialized care. Better access to care must be offered to this population and studies of prematurity in the HIV-infected women must evaluate their prenatal care.

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