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Minerva Med. 2013 Feb;104(1):23-30.

Stress oxidative: nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney diseases.

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Department of Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.


The association between nephrolithiasis and many chronic kidney diseases suggests a common causative link. There are indications that stone formation can lead to hypertension, diabetes, chronic disease and myocardial infarct. The reverse also appears to be true in that diabetes and hypertension can lead to stone formation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS) are common features of many renal and cardiovascular diseases including, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis. It is my hypothesis that oxidative stress produced by one disease may lead to another under suitable conditions. For example mild hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia which under normal conditions may just be a curiosity or nuisance can promote crystallization when cells are injured by ROS produced by the co-morbid condition. On the other hand OS produced during or as a result of nephrolithiasis may promote hypertension or diabetic nephropathy.

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