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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;42(1):1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2012.11.006. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Brain control of insulin and glucagon secretion.

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Department of Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.


Islet hormones, especially insulin and glucagon, are important for glucose homeostasis. Insulin is a necessity for life, and disturbed insulin release results in disordered blood glucose regulation. Although isolated islets are fully capable of detecting changes in their local environment (particularly glucose fluctuations) and altering hormone release appropriately, experimentally manipulating pancreatic innervation alters islet hormone release in the whole animal. This article describes how brain may play a role in influencing and directing secretion of insulin and glucagon as a key part of the integrated physiology of blood glucose homeostasis.

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