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Opt Express. 2013 Jan 28;21(2):2393-401. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.002393.

Metal-nanowall grating transparent electrodes: achieving high optical transmittance at high incident angles with minimal diffraction.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.


A novel architecture has been employed to fabricate transparent electrodes with high conductivity and high optical transmittance at high incident angles. Soft lithography is used to fabricate polymer grating patterns onto which thin metallic films are deposited. Etching removes excess metal leaving tall walls of metal. Polymer encapsulation of the structure both protects the metal and minimizes diffraction. Transmission is dependent upon the height of the walls and encapsulation and varies from 60% to 80% for structures with heights of 1400 nm to 300 nm. In encapsulated structures, very little distortion is visible (either parallel to or perpendicular to standing walls) even at viewing angles 60° from the normal. Diffraction is at characterized through measurement of intensity for zeroth through third order diffraction spots. Encapsulation is shown to significantly reduce diffraction. Measurements are supported by optical simulations.

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