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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Jan;1831(1):133-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.08.010. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

Current views on regulation and function of plasticity-related genes (PRGs/LPPRs) in the brain.

Author information

1
Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Plasticity-related genes (PRGs, Lipid phosphate phosphatase-related proteins LPPRs) are a defined as a subclass of the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) superfamily, comprising so far five brain- and vertebrate-specific membrane-spanning proteins. LPPs interfere with lipid phosphate signaling and are thereby involved in mediating the extracellular concentration and signal transduction of lipid phosphate esters such as lysophosphatidate (LPA) and spingosine-1 phosphate (S1P). LPPs dephosphorylate their substrates through extracellular catalytic domains, thus making them ecto-phosphatases. PRGs/LPPRs are structurally similar to the other LPP family members in general. They are predominantly expressed in the CNS in a subtype specific pattern rather than having a wide tissue distribution. In contrast to LPPs, PRGs/LPPRs may act by modifying bioactive lipids and their signaling pathways, rather than possessing an ecto-phosphatase activity. However, the exact functional roles of PRGs/LPPRs have just begun to be explored. Here, we discuss new findings on the neuron-specific transcriptional regulation of PRG1/LPPR4 and new insights into protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway regulation. Further, we start to shed light on the subcellular localization and the resulting functional modulatory influence of PRG1/LPPR4 expression in excitatory synaptic transmission to the established neural effects such as promotion of filopodia formation, neurite extension, axonal sprouting and reorganization after lesion. This range of effects suggests an involvement in the pathogenesis and/or reparation attempts in disease. Therefore, we summarize available data on the association of PRGs/LPPRs with several neurological and other diseases in humans and experimental animals. Finally we highlight important open questions and emerging future directions of research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.

PMID:
23388400
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.08.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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