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Front Genet. 2013 Jan 31;4:8. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00008. eCollection 2013.

Role of miRNAs in CD4 T cell plasticity during inflammation and tolerance.

Author information

  • 1National Centre for Cell Science Pune, MH, India.

Abstract

Gene expression is tightly regulated in a tuneable, cell-specific and time-dependent manner. Recent advancement in epigenetics and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) revolutionized the concept of gene regulation. In order to regulate the transcription, ncRNA can promptly response to the extracellular signals as compared to transcription factors present in the cells. microRNAs (miRNAs) are ncRNA (~22 bp) encoded in the genome, and present as intergenic or oriented antisense to neighboring genes. The strategic location of miRNA in coding genes helps in the coupled regulation of its expression with host genes. miRNA together with complex machinery called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) interacts with target mRNA and degrade the mRNA or inhibits the translation. CD4 T cells play an important role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation and tolerance. Cytokines and chemokines present in the inflamed microenvironment controls the differentiation and function of various subsets of CD4 T cells [Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs)]. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs play an important role in the development and function of all subsets of CD4 T cells. In current review, we focused on how various miRNAs are regulated by cell's extrinsic and intrinsic signaling, and how miRNAs affect the transdifferentiation of subsets of CD4 T cell and controls their plasticity during inflammation and tolerance.

KEYWORDS:

T cell plasticity; Th17 cells; miRNA; regulatory CD4 T cells; tolerance

PMID:
23386861
PMCID:
PMC3560369
DOI:
10.3389/fgene.2013.00008
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