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Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 Oct;21(10):1067-73. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.3. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Novel allelic variants and evidence for a prevalent mutation in URAT1 causing renal hypouricemia: biochemical, genetics and functional analysis.

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Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.


Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by impaired tubular uric acid (UA) transport with severe complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Type 1 is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the SLC22A12 gene (URAT1), type 2 in the SLC2A9 gene (GLUT9). This article describes three Czech families with RHUC type 1. The serum UA in the probands was 0.9, 1.1 and 0.5 mg/dl and expressed as an increase in the fractional excretion of UA (48, 43 and 39%). The sequencing analysis of SLC22A12 revealed three novel variants: p.G366R, p.T467M and a deletion p.L415_G417del. A detailed metabolic investigation in proband C for progressive visual failure supported suspicion of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 conditioned by the mutation in the MFSD8 gene. Functional studies showed significantly decreased urate uptake and a mis-localized URAT1 signal in p.G366R, p.L415_G417del and p.T467M. Furthermore, colocalization studies showed accumulation of URAT1 protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings suggest that loss-of-function mutations cause RHUC via loss of UA absorption partly by protein misfolding. However, they do not necessarily lead to AKI and a possible genotype-phenotype correlation was not proposed. Furthermore, results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of SLC22A12 variants; the p.L415_G417del mutation predominates in the Roma ethnic group in the Czech Republic.

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