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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Jun;84(6):686-92. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-304080. Epub 2013 Feb 5.

Prevalence of cognitive impairment in Chinese: epidemiology of dementia in Singapore study.

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Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore.



To study the prevalence of and associated factors for cognitive impairment and dementia in community dwelling Chinese from Singapore.


This study includes Chinese subjects from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) study, aged ≥60 years, who underwent comprehensive examinations, including cognitive screening with the locally validated Abbreviated Mental Test and Progressive Forgetfulness Questionnaire. Screen positive participants subsequently underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and cerebral MRI. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) and dementia were diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria. The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia were computed per 5 year age categories and gender. To examine the relationship between baseline associated factors and cognitive impairment, we used logistic regression models to compute odd ratios with 95% CI.


1538 Chinese subjects, aged ≥60 years, underwent cognitive screening: 171 (15.2%) were diagnosed with any cognitive impairment, of whom 84 were CIND mild, 80 CIND moderate and seven had dementia. The overall age adjusted prevalence of CIND mild was 7.2%; CIND moderate/dementia was 7.9%. The prevalence increased with age, from 5.9% in those aged 60-64 years to 31.3% in those aged 75-79 years and 44.1% in those aged ≥80 years. Multivariate analysis revealed age, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia to be independently associated with cognitive impairment.


In present study, the overall prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in Chinese was 15.2%, which is in the same range as the prevalence reported in Caucasian and other Asian populations.


Cognition; Cognitive Neuropsychology; Dementia; Epidemiology; MRI

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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