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J Hypertens. 2013 May;31(5):882-92. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835ecc06.

Time-of-day of energy intake: association with hypertension and blood pressure 10 years later in the 1946 British Birth Cohort.

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Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK.



The role of circadian rhythm of energy and macronutrient intake in influencing cardiometabolic risk factors is increasingly recognized. However, little is known of the association between time of energy intake and blood pressure. We examined the association between time-of-day of energy intake and subsequent hypertension and change in blood pressure.


The analysis included 517 men and 635 women from the 1946 British birth cohort. Diet was assessed using 5-day estimated diaries. Diaries were divided into seven meal slots: breakfast, mid-morning, lunch, mid-afternoon, dinner, late evening and extras. Time-of-day of energy intake at age 43 years was related to hypertension prevalence at 43 years and incidence at age 53 years and 10-year changes in SBP and DBP using logistic regression and censored regression controlling for medication use.


Cohort members in the highest quintile of energy intake at breakfast at age 43 years had 30% lower odds of hypertension prevalence compared with those in the lowest. Cohort members in the highest quintile of energy intake at late evening had higher odds of incident hypertension at age 53 years [odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-2.61; P for linear trend = 0.052]. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of energy intake late in the evening was related to a greater rise in SBP (β = 5.09; 95% CI 1.25-8.93) and DBP (43-53 years) (β = 2.08; 95%CI 0.27-5.32).


Higher energy intake at breakfast is associated with lower hypertension prevalence. Greater energy intake late in the evening is associated with higher hypertension prevalence, incidence and greater increases in blood pressure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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