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Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 May 1;18(3):e497-504.

Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator.

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Section of Graduate Orthodontics, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.



A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion.


Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated.


Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment.


Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation.

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