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Cancer Sci. 2013 May;104(5):631-8. doi: 10.1111/cas.12123. Epub 2013 Mar 24.

Development and characterization of a bladder cancer xenograft model using patient-derived tumor tissue.

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Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Most of the cancer xenograft models are derived from tumor cell lines, but they do not sufficiently represent clinical cancer characteristics. Our objective was to develop xenograft models of bladder cancer derived from human tumor tissue and characterize them molecularly as well as histologically. A total of 65 bladder cancer tissues were transplanted to immunodeficient mice. Passagable six cases with clinico-pathologically heterogeneous bladder cancer were selected and their tumor tissues were collected (012T, 025T, 033T, 043T, 048T, and 052T). Xenografts were removed and processed for the following analyses: (i) histologic examination, (ii) short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping, (iii) mutational analysis, and (iv) array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The original tumor tissues (P 0) and xenografts of passage 2 or higher (≥P2) were analyzed and compared. As a result, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the same histologic architecture and degree of differentiation in the primary and xenograft tumors in all six cases. Xenograft models 043T_P2 and 048T_P2 had completely identical STR profiles to the original samples for all STR loci. The other models had nearly identical STR profiles. On mutational analysis, four out of six xenografts had mutations identical to the original samples for TP53, HRAS, BRAF, and CTNNB1. Array-CGH analysis revealed that all six xenograft models had genomic alterations similar to the original tumor samples. In conclusion, our xenograft bladder cancer model derived from patient tumor tissue is expected to be useful for studying the heterogeneity of the tumor populations in bladder cancer and for evaluating new treatments.

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