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PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55626. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055626. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Gamna-Gandy bodies of the spleen detected with susceptibility weighted imaging: maybe a new potential non-invasive marker of esophageal varices.

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Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.



Portal hypertension (PH) is a clinical sequelae of liver cirrhosis, and bleeding from esophageal varices (EV) is a serious complication of PH with significant morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the ability of 2D multislice breath-hold susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to detect Gamna-Gandy bodies (GGBs) in the spleens of patients with PH and to evaluate the potential role of GGB number as a non-invasive marker of PH and EV.


T1-, T2- and T2(*)-weighted imaging and SWI were performed on 135 patients with PH and on 37 control individuals. Platelet counts were collected from all PH patients. Two radiologists analyzed all magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and measured the portal vein diameter, splenic index (SI), and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio. The numbers of patients with GGBs in the spleen were determined, and the numbers of GGB were counted in the four MRI sequences in GGB-positive patients. The portal vein diameter, SI, platelet count, and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio of control individuals were compared with those of GGB-negative and GGB-positive patients on SWI images. The correlations among GGB numbers, the portal vein diameter, the SI, the platelet count, and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were analyzed.


The GGB detection rate and the detected GGB number by using SWI were significantly greater than those by using T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted images. The number of GGBs in the SWI images correlated positively with the portal vein diameter and SI and correlated negatively with the platelet count and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio.


SWI provided more accurate information of GGBs in patients with PH. The number of GGB may be a non-invasive predictor of improving the selection for endoscopic screening of PH patients at risk of EV.

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