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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):2735-40. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210842110. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature in an Al(Ga)N nanowire-dielectric microcavity with a spatial potential trap.

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  • 1Center for Photonic and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


A spatial potential trap is formed in a 6.0-μm Al(Ga)N nanowire by varying the Al composition along its length during epitaxial growth. The polariton emission characteristics of a dielectric microcavity with the single nanowire embedded in-plane have been studied at room temperature. Excitation is provided at the Al(Ga)N end of the nanowire, and polariton emission is observed from the lowest bandgap GaN region within the potential trap. Comparison of the results with those measured in an identical microcavity with a uniform GaN nanowire and having an identical exciton-photon detuning suggests evaporative cooling of the polaritons as they are transported into the trap in the Al(Ga)N nanowire. Measurement of the spectral characteristics of the polariton emission, their momentum distribution, first-order spatial coherence, and time-resolved measurements of polariton cooling provides strong evidence of the formation of a near-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in the GaN region of the nanowire at room temperature. In contrast, the condensate formed in the uniform GaN nanowire-dielectric microcavity without the spatial potential trap is only in self-equilibrium.

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