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Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Mar 15;19(6):1487-93. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2929. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of patients with thymic epithelial tumors.

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  • 1Medical Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

There are limited data regarding the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]-FDG PET) imaging in management of patients with thymic epithelial tumors (TET). The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of early [(18)F]-FDG PET to monitor treatment efficacy and its correlation with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in patients with TETs.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

[(18)F]-FDG PET/computed tomographic (CT) scans were conducted at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment in patients enrolled in two phase II and one phase I/II clinical trials. On the basis of data from other solid tumors, metabolic response was defined as a reduction of [(18)F]-FDG uptake by more than 30% as assessed by average standardized uptake values (SUV) of up to five most metabolically active lesions.

RESULTS:

Fifty-six patients with unresectable Masaoka stage III or IV TETs were included. There was a close correlation between early metabolic response and subsequent best response using RECIST (P < 0.0001-0.0003): sensitivity and specificity for prediction of best response were 95% and 100%, respectively. Metabolic responders had significantly longer progression-free survival (median, 11.5 vs. 4.6 months; P = 0.044) and a trend toward longer overall survival (median, 31.8 vs. 18.4 months; P = 0.14) than nonresponders. [(18)F]-FDG uptake was significantly higher in thymic carcinoma than in thymoma (P = 0.0004-0.0010).

CONCLUSION:

In patients with advanced TETs, early metabolic response closely correlates with outcome of therapy. [(18)F]-FDG PET may be used to monitor treatment efficacy and assess histologic differences in patients with advanced TETs.

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