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Opt Lett. 2013 Feb 1;38(3):284-6. doi: 10.1364/OL.38.000284.

Whispering gallery mode resonators augmented with engraved diffraction gratings.

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Quantum Sciences and Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA.


We report the demonstration of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators augmented with diffraction gratings. We apply focused ion beam (FIB) methods to precisely engrave a surface grating directly into the perimeter of a crystalline disc. The grating provides a simple and highly directional free-space coupling mechanism with superior stability to evanescent coupling techniques. These integrated gratings can also provide control of the resonance spectrum, significantly reducing the mode density. Our FIB fabrication process does not introduce significant loss; Q≃3×10(7) has been demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the diffraction angle was found to be in excellent agreement with grating theory. The versatility of spectral control and far-field grating coupling will have significant impact in WGM resonator applications in lasers, sensors, and optoelectronics.

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