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J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013 May;39(5):1007-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.02064.x. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Associations among depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

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Department of Women's Health, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.



The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among depression, anxiety and physical symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women in a clinical setting.


Two hundred and thirty-seven peri- and postmenopausal women enrolled in the Systematic Health and Nutrition Education Program at the Menopause Clinic of the Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital. Their responses to the Menopausal Health-Related Quality of Life (MHR-QOL) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires were subjected to a cross-sectional analysis. The study focused on the relationship between the scores for HADS depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A) subscales and those for somatic (nausea, dizziness, numbness, muscle and joint pains, tiredness, headaches), urinary (frequent urination), and vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats) in the MHR-QOL questionnaire.


The correlations among the scores for the six somatic symptoms and HADS-D and HADS-A were stronger than those for urinary or vasomotor symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the score for headaches and that for HADS-A were significantly associated with severe depression after adjustment (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.49 [1.06-2.10] and 1.58 [1.37-1.83], respectively), whereas the scores for nausea and numbness, as well as HADS-D, were significantly associated with severe anxiety (OR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.15-2.39], 1.39 [1.05-1.84], and 1.36 [1.23-1.50], respectively).


Headaches were associated with depression, whereas nausea and numbness were associated with anxiety in peri- and postmenopausal women. The assessment of underlying mood disorders is required for the management of middle-aged women presenting with these somatic symptoms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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