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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2013 Jan-Feb;28(1):216-21. doi: 10.11607/jomi.2606.

Immediate loading of implants in the maxilla: survival and bone loss after at least 2 years in function.

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Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.



To compare survival and peri-implant bone loss around immediately loaded surface-enhanced implants in the maxilla supporting single crowns (SCs), fixed partial dentures (FPDs), and fixed full-arch dentures (FFDs).


The study included all subjects referred for implant treatment in the maxilla followed by immediate loading between November 2004 and 2007 with at least 2 years of follow-up. Smokers were excluded. Implant survival and bone loss were assessed by a calibrated external examiner who compared digital periapical radiographs taken during recall visits with baseline radiographs (day of loading = day after implant placement). An implant was considered successful when bone loss did not exceed 1 mm. Survival of implants supporting SCs, FPDs, and FFDs was compared using the log-rank test. A linear mixed-effect model analysis was used to evaluate bone loss because of clustering of implants in patients.


Three hundred six implants were placed in 55 patients (31 women, 24 men; mean age, 57.5 ± 11.4 years; range, 19 to 77 years) and followed for a mean of 35 ± 10.2 months (range, 24 to 58 months). One implant failed, resulting in an overall survival rate of 99.7% on the implant level and 98.2% on the patient level. No statistically significant differences were observed in the survival rates for SCs (100%), FPDs (98%), and FFDs (100%). The overall mean bone loss was 0.27 ± 0.37 mm (range, 0.00 to 2.55 mm) and was not influenced by the prosthetic reconstruction.


Immediate loading of fluoride-modified implants in the maxilla is a predictable and reliable treatment option with high survival rates and limited peri-implant bone loss after 2 years. No statistically significant differences were found between implants supporting SCs, FPDs, and FFDs.

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