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Resuscitation. 2013 Aug;84(8):1143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.01.024. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

Ischemic post-conditioning and vasodilator therapy during standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation to reduce cardiac and brain injury after prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Division at The University of Minnesota, MN, United States. yanno001@umn.edu

Abstract

AIM OF THE STUDY:

We investigated the effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) with and without cardioprotective vasodilatory therapy (CVT) at the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on cardio-cerebral function and 48-h survival.

METHODS:

Prospective randomized animal study. Following 15 min of ventricular fibrillation, 42 Yorkshire farm pigs weighing an average of 34 ± 2 kg were randomized to receive standard CPR (SCPR, n=12), SCPR+IPC (n=10), SCPR+IPC+CVT (n=10), or SCPR+CVT (n=10). IPC was delivered during the first 3 min of CPR with 4 cycles of 20s of chest compressions followed by 20-s pauses. CVT consisted of intravenous sodium nitroprusside (2mg) and adenosine (24 mg) during the first minute of CPR. Epinephrine was given in all groups per standard protocol. A transthoracic echocardiogram was obtained on all survivors 1 and 4h post-ROSC. The brains were extracted after euthanasia at least 24h later to assess ischemic injury in 7 regions. Ischemic injury was graded on a 0-4 scale with (0=no injury to 4 ≥ 50% neural injury). The sum of the regional scores was reported as cerebral histological score (CHS). 48 h survival was reported.

RESULTS:

Post-resuscitation left ventricular ejection (LVEF) fraction improved in SCPR+CVT, SCPR+IPC+CVT and SCPR+IPC groups compared to SCPR (59% ± 9%, 52% ± 14%, 52% ± 14% vs. 35% ± 11%, respectively, p<0.05). Only SCPR+IPC and SCPR+IPC+CVT, but not SCPR+CVT, had lower mean CHS compared to SCPR (5.8 ± 2.6, 2.8 ± 1.8 vs. 10 ± 2.1, respectively, p<0.01). The 48-h survival among SCPR+IPC, SCPR+CVT, SCPR+IPC+CVT and SCPR was 6/10, 3/10, 5/10 and 1/12, respectively (Cox regression p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

IPC and CVT during standard CPR improved post-resuscitation LVEF but only IPC was independently neuroprotective and improved 48-h survival after 15 min of untreated cardiac arrest in pigs.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Left ventricular function; Neurological function; Post-conditioning; Survival

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