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Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 1;74(3):212-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.013. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Default mode network in childhood autism: posteromedial cortex heterogeneity and relationship with social deficits.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The default mode network (DMN), a brain system anchored in the posteromedial cortex, has been identified as underconnected in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, to date there have been no attempts to characterize this network and its involvement in mediating social deficits in children with ASD. Furthermore, the functionally heterogeneous profile of the posteromedial cortex raises questions regarding how altered connectivity manifests in specific functional modules within this brain region in children with ASD.

METHODS:

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an anatomically informed approach were used to investigate the functional connectivity of the DMN in 20 children with ASD and 19 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. Multivariate regression analyses were used to test whether altered patterns of connectivity are predictive of social impairment severity.

RESULTS:

Compared with TD children, children with ASD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices with predominately medial and anterolateral temporal cortex. In contrast, the precuneus in ASD children demonstrated hypoconnectivity with visual cortex, basal ganglia, and locally within the posteromedial cortex. Aberrant posterior cingulate cortex hyperconnectivity was linked with severity of social impairments in ASD, whereas precuneus hypoconnectivity was unrelated to social deficits. Consistent with previous work in healthy adults, a functionally heterogeneous profile of connectivity within the posteromedial cortex in both TD and ASD children was observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

This work links hyperconnectivity of DMN-related circuits to the core social deficits in young children with ASD and highlights fundamental aspects of posteromedial cortex heterogeneity.

KEYWORDS:

Autism spectrum disorders; default mode network; functional connectivity; posterior cingulate cortex; posteromedial cortex; resting-state fMRI

PMID:
23375976
PMCID:
PMC3710546
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.013
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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