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Brain Dev. 2014 Jan;36(1):45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.12.010. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

Premonitory urges for tics in adult patients with Tourette syndrome.

Author information

1
College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
2
School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
3
Department of Neurology, St. George's Hospital and Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Neurology, St. George's Hospital and Medical School, London, United Kingdom; Department of Mental Health, Sciences, UCL, London, United Kingdom.
5
College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; Department of Neuropsychiatry, BSMHFT and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Andrea.Cavanna@bsmhft.nhs.uk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) often report characteristic sensory experiences, also called premonitory urges (PUs), which precede tic expression and have high diagnostic relevance. This study investigated the usefulness of a scale developed and validated in children and adolescents-the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS, Woods et al., 2005 [13])-for the assessment of PUs in adult patients with TS.

METHOD:

Standard statistical methods were applied to test the psychometric properties of the PUTS in 102 adult TS outpatients recruited from two specialist clinics in the United Kingdom.

RESULTS:

The PUTS showed good acceptability and endorsement rates, with evenly distributed scores and low floor and ceiling effects. Item-total correlations were moderate to strong; PUTS total scores were significantly correlated with quantitative measures of TS severity. The PUTS showed excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.85) and Spearman's correlations demonstrated satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although originally devised to assess urges to tic in young patients with TS, the PUTS demonstrated good psychometric properties in a large sample of adults recruited at specialist TS clinics. This instrument is therefore recommended for use across the life span as a valid and reliable self-report measure of sensory experiences accompanying tic expression.

KEYWORDS:

Adult; PUTS; Premonitory urges; Psychometric properties; Tics; Tourette syndrome

PMID:
23369830
DOI:
10.1016/j.braindev.2012.12.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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