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J Urol. 2013 Jul;190(1):222-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.01.069. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Antibiotic resistance patterns of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infections.

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1
Department of Urology, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We characterize the current national patterns of antibiotic resistance of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients younger than 18 years in 2009 using The Surveillance Network®, a database with antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data from 195 United States hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for the 6 most common uropathogens, ie Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence between males and females using chi-square analysis.

RESULTS:

We identified 25,418 outpatient urinary isolates. E. coli was the most common uropathogen overall but the prevalence of E. coli was higher among females (83%) than males (50%, p <0.001). Other common species among males were Enterococcus (17%), P. mirabilis (11%) and Klebsiella (10%). However, these uropathogens each accounted for 5% or less of female isolates (p <0.001). Resistance among E. coli was highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24%) but lower for nitrofurantoin (less than 1%) and cephalothin (15%). Compared to 2002 Surveillance Network data, E. coli resistance rates increased for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 23% to 31% in males and from 20% to 23% in females) and ciprofloxacin (from 1% to 10% and from 0.6% to 4%, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

E. coli remains the most common pediatric uropathogen. Although widely used, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a poor empirical choice for pediatric urinary tract infections in many areas due to high resistance rates. First-generation cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin are appropriate narrow-spectrum alternatives given their low resistance rates. Local antibiograms should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment.

Comment in

PMID:
23369720
PMCID:
PMC4165642
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2013.01.069
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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