Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Phys Rev Lett. 2012 Dec 28;109(26):260401. Epub 2012 Dec 26.

Gapless Hamiltonians for the toric code using the projected entangled pair state formalism.

Author information

Departamento de Física de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain.


We study Hamiltonians which have Kitaev's toric code as a ground state, and show how to construct a Hamiltonian which shares the ground space of the toric code, but which has gapless excitations with a continuous spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Our construction is based on the framework of projected entangled pair states, and can be applied to a large class of two-dimensional systems to obtain gapless "uncle Hamiltonians."

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Physical Society
    Loading ...
    Support Center