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Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:5678. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347283.

Monolithic graphene transistor biointerface.

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Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


We report monolithic integration of graphene and graphite for all-carbon integrated bioelectronics. First, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of graphene and graphite can be modulated by controlling the number of graphene layers, and such capabilities allow graphene to be used as active channels and graphite as metallic interconnects for all-carbon bioelectronics. Furthermore, we show that monolithic graphene-graphite devices exhibit mechanical flexibility and robustness while their electrical responses are not perturbed by mechanical deformation, demonstrating their unique electromechanical properties. Chemical sensing capability of all-carbon integrated bioelectronics is manifested in real-time, complementary pH detection. These unique capabilities of our monolithic graphene-graphite bioelectronics could be exploited in chemical and biological detection and conformal interface with biological systems in the future.

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