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J Aging Res. 2012;2012:384875. doi: 10.1155/2012/384875. Epub 2012 Dec 31.

Use of physical and intellectual activities and socialization in the management of cognitive decline of aging and in dementia: a review.

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Department of Medicine (Geriatrics) and Centre for Neuroscience, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 5A2.


Lifestyle nonpharmacological interventions can have a deep effect on cognitive aging. We have reviewed the available literature on the effectiveness of physical activity, intellectual stimulation, and socialization on the incidence of dementia and on the course of dementia itself. Even though physical activity appears to be beneficial in both delaying dementia onset and in the course of the disease, more research is needed before intellectual stimulation and socialization can be considered as treatments and prevention of the disease. Through our paper, we found that all three nonpharmacological treatments provide benefits to cognition and overall well-being in patients with age-related cognitive impairments. These interventions may be beneficial in the management of dementia.

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