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Masui. 2012 Dec;61(12):1373-5.

[Massive bleeding during and after cesarean section in a patient receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer].

[Article in Japanese]

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Department of Anesthesiology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo 409-3898.


A 30-year-old pregnant woman (151 cm, 49 kg) with twin gestation who had got pregnant with frozen-thawed embryo transfer was scheduled to undergo cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed separately at the T12-L1 (epidural) and at the L3-4 interspace (spinal). The sensory anesthesia was extended to T2 and the operation was started. The cesarean delivery was uneventful and healthy 2,370 g and 2,334 g neonates were delivered. Five minutes after the delivery, placenta was removed manually from the uterus. Despite using oxytocin, methylergometrine and prostaglandin F2alpha, uterine contraction was severely impaired and massive bleeding occurred. General anesthesia was not commenced and packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate were given. Uterus gradually contracted and the patient was transferred to the ward. However, massive bleeding continued postoperatively, and magnetic resonance imaging indicated retained placenta. Total hysterectomy was performed on the second postoperative day. Atonic bleeding and placental invasion should be the main causes of massive bleeding. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer might be one of the important factors for placental invasion. We have to prepare for massive bleeding during and after the cesarean section in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

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