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Stroke. 2013 Mar;44(3):779-85. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.678177. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor agonist improves cerebral microvascular function after hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in male and female rats.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Reduced risk and severity of stroke in adult females are thought to depend on normal levels of endogenous estrogen, which is a known neuro- and vasoprotective agent in experimental cerebral ischemia. Recently, a novel G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, formerly GPR30) has been identified and may mediate the vasomotor and -protective effects of estrogen. However, the signaling mechanisms associated with GPER in the cerebral microcirculation remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of GPER-mediated vasoreactivity and also its vasoprotective effect after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/RO) injury.

METHODS:

Rat cerebral penetrating arterioles from both sexes were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized. Vessel diameters were recorded by computer-aided videomicroscopy. To investigate vasomotor mechanism of the GPER agonist (G-1), several inhibitors with or without endothelial impairment were tested. Ischemia/reperfusion injury was simulated using H/RO. Vasomotor responses to adenosine triphophate after H/RO were measured with or without G-1 and compared with controls.

RESULTS:

G-1 produced a vasodilatory response, which was partially dependent on endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) but not arachidonic acid cascades and endothelial hyperpolarization factor. Attenuation of G-1-vasodilation by the NO synthase inhibitor and endothelium-impairment were greater in vessels from female than male animals. G-1 treatment after H/RO injury fully restored arteriolar dilation to adenosine triphophate compared with controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

GPER agonist elicited dilation, which was partially caused by endothelial NO pathway and induced by direct relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Further, GPER agonist restored vessel function of arterioles after H/RO injury and may play an important role in the ability of estrogen to protect the cerebrovasculature against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

PMID:
23362079
PMCID:
PMC3923380
DOI:
10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.678177
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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