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Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Jul;58(7):1976-84. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2547-z. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Transcatheter embolotherapy for gastrointestinal bleeding: a single center review of safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, 1740 West Taylor Street, MC 931, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to assess safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes following transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Ninety-five patients (male:female ratio = 53:42, mean age 62 years) that underwent 95 TAEs for GI hemorrhage between 2002 and 2010 were retrospectively studied. Seventy-six of 95 (80 %) patients had upper GI bleeds and 19/95 (20 %) patients had lower GI bleeds. A mean of 7 (range 0-27) packed red blood cell units were transfused pre-procedure, and 90/95 (95 %) procedures were urgent or emergent. Twenty-seven of 95 (28 %) patients were hemodynamically unstable. Measured outcomes included procedure technical success, adverse events, and 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates.

RESULTS:

Bleeding etiology included peptic ulcer disease (45/95, 47 %), cancer (14/95, 15 %), diverticulosis (13/95, 14 %), and other (23/95, 24 %). Vessels embolized (n = 109) included gastroduodenal (42/109, 39 %), pancreaticoduodenal (22/109, 20 %), gastric (21/109, 19 %), superior mesenteric (12/109, 11 %), inferior mesenteric (8/109, 7 %), and splenic (4/109, 4 %) artery branches. Technical success with immediate hemostasis was achieved in 93/95 (98 %) cases. Most common embolic agents included coils (66/109, 61 %) and/or gelatin sponge (19/109, 17 %). Targeted versus empiric embolization were performed in 57/95 (60 %) and 38/95 (40 %) cases, respectively. Complications included bowel ischemia (4/95, 4 %) and coil migration in 3/95 (3 %). 30-day rebleeding rate was 23 % (22/95). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 18 % (16/89). Empiric embolization resulted in similar rebleeding (23 vs 24 %) but higher mortality (31 vs 9 %) rates compared to embolization for active extravasation.

CONCLUSIONS:

TAE controlled GI bleeding with high technical success, safety, and efficacy, and should be considered when endoscopic therapy is not feasible or unsuccessful.

PMID:
23361570
DOI:
10.1007/s10620-012-2547-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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